From  VDOE's Curriculum Framework (a student friendly version is located on the activity page in the Study Guide for each standard)
Standard 5.3 - Light

The student will investigate and understand basic characteristics of visible light and how it behaves. Key concepts include
a) the visible spectrum and light waves;
b) refraction of light through water and prisms;
c) reflection of light from reflective surfaces (mirrors);
d) opaque, transparent, and translucent; and
e) historical contributions in understand ing light.

The concepts developed in this standard include the following:
Visible light is a combination of several different wavelengths of light traveling together. These wavelengths are represented by the colors red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, and violet. (ROYGBIV)
Light waves are characterized by their wavelengths. In the visible spectrum, red has the longest wavelength, and violet has the shortest. Wavelengths get progressively shorter from red to violet.
Light travels in waves. Compared to sound, light travels extremely fast. It takes light from the sun less than eight and a half minutes to travel 150 million kilometers to reach the Earth.
Unlike sound, light waves travel in straight paths called rays and do not need a medium through which to move.
Light travels in straight paths until it hits an object, where it bounces off (is reflected); is bent (is refracted); passes through the object (is transmitted); or is absorbed as heat.
The relative terms transparent, translucent, and opaque indicate the amount of light that passes through an object.
A prism can be used to refract visible light. When the different wavelengths of light in visible light pass through a prism, they are bent at different angles. The colors of light we see are red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, and violet.

In order to meet this standard, it is expected that students should be able to:
explain the relationships between wavelength and the color of light. Name the colors of the visible spectrum.
diagram and label a representation of a light wave (wavelength, peak, trough).
compare and contrast reflection and refraction using water, prisms, and mirrors.
explain the terms transparent, translucent, and opaque, and give an example of each.
analyze the effects of a prism on white light and describe why this occurs. Explain why a rainbow occurs.
analyze the effects of a prism on white light and describe why this occurs. Explain why a rainbow occurs.