The concepts developed in this standard
include the following:
· Sound is a form of energy produced and transmitted by vibrating matter.
· Sound travels in waves and can be described by the wavelength and
frequency of the waves. A wave is a disturbance moving through a medium
(solid, liquid, or gas).
· The frequency of sound is the number of vibrations in a given unit of
· Sound is a compression wave moving outward from its source. The wavelength
of sound is the distance between two compressions.
· Pitch is determined by the frequency of a vibrating object. Objects
vibrating faster have a higher pitch than objects vibrating slower.
· Sound travels more quickly through solids than through liquids and gases
because the molecules of a solid are closer together. Sound travels slowest
through gases because the molecules of gases are farthest apart.
· Some animals make and hear ranges of sound vibrations different than
humans can make and hear.
· Musical instruments vibrate to produce sound.
In order to meet this standard, it is
expected that students should be able to:
· use the basic terminology of sound to describe what sound is, how it is
formed, how it affects matter, and how it travels.
· create and interpret a model or diagram of a compression wave.
· explain why sound waves travel only where there is matter to transmit
· explain the relationship between frequency and pitch.
· design an investigation to determine what factors affect the pitch of a
vibrating object. This includes vibrating strings, rubber bands, beakers/
bottles of air and water, tubes (as in wind chimes), and other household
· compare and contrast sound traveling through a solid with sound traveling
through the air. Explain how different media (solid, liquid, and gas) will
affect the transmission of sound.
· compare and contrast the sounds (voice) that humans make and hear to that
of other animals. This includes bats, dogs, and whales.
· compare and contrast how different kinds of musical instruments make
sound. This includes string instruments, woodwinds, percussion instruments,
and brass instruments.