|From VDOE's Curriculum Framework (a student friendly version is located on the activity page in the Study Guide for each standard)|
|Standard 4.6 - Weather|
|The student will investigate and understand how weather
conditions and phenomena occur and can be predicted. Key concepts include
a) weather measurements and meteorological tools (air pressure-barometer, wind speed anemometer, rainfall-rain gauge, and temperature-thermometer); and
b) weather phenomena (fronts, clouds, and storms).
|Standards from VDOE Curriculum Framework (Illustrated Standards below)|
The concepts developed in this standard
include the following:
• Temperature is the measure of the amount of heat energy in the atmosphere.
• Air pressure is due to the weight of the air and is determined by several factors including the temperature of the air.
• A front is the boundary between air masses of different temperature and humidity.
• Cirrus, stratus, cumulus, and cumulo-nimbus clouds are associated with certain weather conditions.
• Cumulus clouds are fluffy and white with flat bottoms. They usually indicate fair weather. However, when they get larger and darker on the bottom, they produce thunderstorms.
• Stratus clouds are smooth, gray clouds that cover the whole sky (block out direct sunlight). Light rain and drizzle are usually associated with stratus clouds.
• Cirrus clouds are feathery clouds. They are associated with fair weather. Cirrus clouds often indicate that rain or snow will fall within several hours.
• Extreme atmospheric conditions create various kinds of storms such as thunderstorms, hurricanes, and tornadoes.
• Different atmospheric conditions create different types of precipitation.
• Meteorologists gather data by using a variety of instruments.
• Meteorologists use data to predict weather patterns.
• A barometer measures air pressure.
• An anemometer measures wind speed.
• A rain gauge measures precipitation.
• A thermometer measures the temperature of the air.
order to meet this standard, it is expected that students will be able to
• use a thermometer to compare air temperatures over a period of time.
• analyze the changes in air pressure occurring over time, using a barometer, and predict what the changes mean in terms of changing weather patterns.
• differentiate between the types of weather associated with high and low pressure air masses. Illustrate and label high and low pressure air masses and warm and cold fronts.
• differentiate between cloud types (cirrus, stratus, cumulus, and cumulo-nimbus clouds) and the associated weather.
• compare and contrast the formation of different types of precipitation (rain, snow, sleet, and hail).
• recognize a variety of storm types, describe the weather conditions associated with each, and explain when they occur (thunderstorms, hurricanes, and tornadoes).
• analyze and report information about temperature and precipitation on weather maps.
• measure wind speed, using an anemometer.
• measure precipitation with a rain gauge.
• design an investigation in which weather data are gathered using meteorological tools and charted to make weather predictions.