GRADES K-3   
FORCE, MOTION AND ENERGY

KINDERGARTEN--Standard K.3
The student will investigate and understand that magnets have an effect on some materials, make some things move without touching them, and have useful applications. Key concepts include

a) attraction/non-attraction, push/pull, attract/repel, and metal/nonmetal; and
b) useful applications (refrigerator magnet, can opener, magnetized screwdriver, and magnetic games).

THE CONCEPTS IN THIS STANDARD:
      Magnets will attract certain metals (iron-bearing, nickel, and cobalt).
     
Magnets have an effect on some items and can cause them to move. Some items are not affected by magnets and remain stationary.
     
Because some metals are attracted to magnets, magnets have many simple useful applications in the home.
     
The force of a magnet can move something without actually touching it.
     
Repulsion is the force that pushes like poles of magnets apart.
 

 AND SHOULD BE ABLE TO:
     
predict and test which common objects will be attracted to magnets and which will not be attracted to magnets.
      classify objects as being attracted or not attracted to magnets, such as iron nail, iron-bearing paper clip, cereal, and book.
      explain in their own words essential vocabulary, including the concepts of attraction/non-attraction, push/pull, attract/repel, and metal/nonmetal.
      identify items in the home that contain a magnet or magnets, such as can openers, magnetized screwdrivers, magnetic games, and refrigerator magnets.
     evaluate the importance and usefulness of magnets in the home.
1ST GRADE     The student will investigate and understand that moving objects exhibit different kinds of motion. Key concepts include

a)      objects may have straight, circular, and back-and-forth motions;

b)      objects may vibrate and produce sound;

c)      pushes or pulls can change the movement of an object; and

d)      the motion of objects may be observed in the manipulation toys and in playground activities.

1ST GRADERS SHOULD LEARN:
      An objectís motion may be described by tracing and measuring its position over time. The motion of objects may be straight, circular, curved, or back-and-forth.
     
One kind of back-and-forth motion is vibration. Vibrations may create sound.
     
Pushing or pulling can change the position and motion of objects. For the same object, the size of the change is related to the strength of the push or pull.
AND SHOULD BE ABLE TO:
     
make and communicate observations about moving objects. Examples should include balls, objects with wheels, windup toys, tops, rubber bands, and playground equipment.
     
predict an objectís movement, using its size, shape, and the force of the push or pull on it.
     
conduct a simple experiment to determine an objectís movement.
     
describe and classify the motion of an object as straight, circular, curved, or back-and-forth.
     
understand that vibrations may create sound, such as humming, strumming a guitar, or plucking a rubber band.
     
record observations of movement (length/distance), using standard (English/metric) and nonstandard units.

compare the movement of objects, using graphs, pictures, and/or numbers.
2ND GRADE    Standard 2.2   The student will investigate and understand that natural and artificial magnets have certain characteristics and attract specific types of metals. Key concepts include

a)      magnetism, iron, magnetic/nonmagnetic, poles, attract/repel; and

b)      important applications of magnetism including the magnetic compass.

2ND GRADERS SHOULD LEARN:
     
Magnets can attract objects made of iron or nickel.
     
Magnets can be artificially made from special metals or can occur naturally. Naturally occurring magnets are composed of a mineral called magnetite (lodestone).
     
When a magnetized metal, such as a compass needle, is allowed to swing freely, it displays the interesting property of aligning with the Earthís magnetic fields.
     
Magnets have a north and a south pole.
     
Unlike magnetic poles attract, and like poles repel.

      Magnets have important applications and uses in everyday life.
AND BE ABLE TO:
     
predict which materials will be attracted to magnets, test the predictions, and create a chart that shows the results, classifying materials as to whether they are attracted to magnets or not.
     
compare natural magnets (lodestone or magnetite) and artificial magnets.
     
identify the north and south magnetic poles of magnets.
     
conduct an investigation to determine how the different poles of magnets react to the poles of other magnets.
     
use magnetic compasses to determine the directions of north and south poles.
     
identify important applications of magnets in everyday life:-      refrigerator magnets and chalkboard letter
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      toys
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      door latches
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      paper clip holders.

     create a new application for using a magnet.
3RD GRADE   Standard 3.2      The student will investigate and understand simple machines and their uses. Key concepts include

a)      types of simple machines (lever, screw, pulley, wheel and axle, inclined plane, and wedge);

b)      how simple machines function;

c)      compound machines (scissors, wheelbarrow, and bicycle); and

d)      examples of simple and compound machines found in the school, home, and work environment.

3RD GRADERS SHOULD LEARN:
     
Simple machines are tools that make work easier. Examples of tasks made easier include lifting a heavy weight, moving a heavy object over a distance, pushing things apart, changing the direction of a force, or holding an object together.
     
The six simple machines are the lever, inclined plane, wedge, wheel and axle, screw, and pulley.
     
The lever is a stiff bar that moves about a fixed point (fulcrum). It is a simple machine that is used to push, pull, or lift things. Examples include a seesaw, crowbar, and shovel.
     
The inclined plane is a flat surface that is raised so one end is higher than the other. The inclined plane helps move heavy objects up or down. An example is a ramp.
     
The wedge is wide at one end and pointed at the other to help cut or split other objects. Examples include a knife or ax.

     The wheel and axle consists of a rod attached to a wheel. A wheel and axle makes it easier to move or turn things. Examples include bicycle wheels, roller skates, and a doorknob.
     
The screw is an inclined plane wrapped around a cylinder or cone. A common use of the screw is to hold objects together. Examples include a jar lid and wood screw.
     
The pulley is a wheel that has a rope wrapped around it. Pulleys can be used to lift heavy objects by changing the direction or amount of the force. Examples include a flagpole.

     A compound machine is a combination of two or more simple machines. Examples include scissors, wheelbarrow, and bicycle.
AND SHOULD BE ABLE TO:
     
identify and differentiate the six types of simple machines: lever, screw, pulley, wheel and axle, inclined plane, and wedge.
     
analyze the application of and explain the function of each of the six types of simple machines. An example would be that an inclined plane is a ramp to make it easier for a heavy object to be moved up or down.
     
differentiate and classify specific examples of simple machines found in school and household items. These include a screwdriver, nutcracker, screw, flagpole pulley, ramp, and seesaw.
     
design and construct an apparatus that contains a simple machine.

      identify and classify the simple machines which compose a compound machine, such as scissors, wheelbarrow, and bicycle.