GRADES K-3   
EARTH PATTERNS, CYCLES AND CHANGE

KINDERGARTEN
Standard K.8
The student will investigate and understand simple patterns in his/her daily life. Key concepts include
a)       weather observations;
b)       the shapes and forms of many common natural objects including seeds, cones, and leaves;
c)       animal and plant growth; and
d)       home and school routines.
Standard K.9
The student will investigate and understand that change occurs over time and rates may be fast or slow. Key concepts include
a)      natural and human-made things may change over time; and
b)      changes can be noted and measured.

FIRST GRADE -- Standard 1.7    The student will investigate and understand the relationship of seasonal change and weather to the activities and life processes of plants and animals. Key concepts include how temperature, light, and precipitation bring about changes in
a)
      plants (growth, budding, falling leaves, and wilting);
b)
      animals (behaviors, hibernation, migration, body covering, and habitat); and
c)
      people (dress, recreation, and work).

1ST GRADERS SHOULD KNOW:
     
Seasonal changes bring about changes in plants, animals, and people.
     
With seasonal changes come changes in weather, including temperature, light, and precipitation.
     
Precipitation includes rain, snow, and ice.
     
Changes in plants include budding, growth, wilting, and losing leaves.
     
Some animals hibernate and some animals migrate as a result of seasonal changes, resulting in changes in habitat.
     
The body coverings of some animals change with the seasons. This includes thickness of fur and coloration.
      Changes in people include their dress, recreation, and work.
AND BE ABLE TO:
     
identify types of precipitation as rain, snow, and ice and the temperature conditions that result in each one.
     
relate a temperature and precipitation chart to the corresponding season (daily or weekly).
     
measure and chart changes in plants, including budding, growth, wilting, and losing leaves. Recognize in what season budding and wilting will most likely occur.
     
predict how an outdoor plant would change through the seasons.
     
compare and contrast the four seasons of spring, summer, fall (autumn) and winter in terms of temperature, light, and precipitation.
     
compare and contrast the activities of some common animals (e.g., squirrels, chipmunks, butterflies, bees, ants, bats, and frogs) during summer and winter by describing changes in their behaviors and body covering.

      compare and contrast how some common plants (e.g., oak trees, pine trees, and lawn grass) appear during summer and winter.
      comprehend the concepts of hibernation, migration, and habitat, and describe how these relate to seasonal changes. (It may be useful to recognize common Virginia animals that hibernate and migrate, but specific names of animals is not the focus of student learning here.)
      infer from peopleís dress, recreational activities, and work activities what the season is.
2ND GRADE    Standard 2.7     The student will investigate and understand that weather and seasonal changes affect plants, animals, and their surroundings. Key concepts include
a)
      effects on growth and behavior of living things (migration, hibernation,
camouflage, adaptation, dormancy); and
b)
      weathering and erosion of the land surface.
2ND GRADERS SHOULD KNOW:
     
Living things respond to weather and seasonal changes. This can be reflected in changes in growth and behavior.
     
Adverse conditions of weather may slow the growth and development of plants and animals (dormancy), whereas optimal weather conditions may accelerate the growth and development of plants and animals.
     
Many trees produce new leaves in the spring and lose them in the fall due to seasonal changes in temperature and light.
     
The outward coloration and coloration patterns of many animals are similar in appearance to the plants in the places in which they live. This similarity to background is referred to as camouflage, and it enables animals to hide and avoid those that may eat or harm them.
     
Some animals travel from one place to another and back again (migration) or go into a deep sleep (hibernation) due to seasonal changes.

      Some animals (geese, monarch butterflies) migrate.
      Some animals (bears, groundhogs) hibernate. Some animals undergo physical changes (thickening of dog fur in the winter and shedding in the summer) from season to season..
     
Land surfaces are subject to the agents of weathering and erosion. Land surfaces that are not covered with or protected by plants are more likely to be subject to the loss of soil by wind and water.
     
Weathering is the breaking down of rocks.
      Erosion is the process by which the products of weathering are moved from one place to another.
AND BE ABLE TO:
     
identify growth and behavioral responses of plants and animals to weather and seasonal changes. Examples of responses that are adaptive include migration, hibernation, and dormancy.
     
identify animals that migrate, hibernate, or show other changes throughout the seasons or in the presence of adverse environmental conditions.
     
evaluate the usefulness of camouflage in an animalís habitat (for example, coloration patterns in frogs).
     
compare and contrast the responses of plants and animals to weather and seasonal changes.
     
model the effects of weathering and erosion on the land surface.
3RD GRADE     Standard 3.8   The student will investigate and understand basic patterns and cycles occurring in nature. Key concepts include

a)      patterns of natural events (day and night, seasonal changes, phases of the moon, and tides); and

b)      animal and plant life cycles.

3RD GRADERS SHOULD KNOW:
     
A cycle is a repeated pattern. A sequence is a series of events that occur in a natural order.
     
The pattern of day and night is caused by the rotation of the Earth. One complete rotation occurs every 24 hours. The part of the Earth toward the sun has daylight while the part of the Earth away from the sun has night.
     
The pattern of seasonal changes takes place because the Earthís axis is tilted toward or away from the sun during its revolution around the sun. The Earth takes 365 days, or one year, to make one revolution.
     
The cycle of phases of the moon occurs as the moon makes one revolution around the Earth. The shapes we see follow a pattern.
     
The tides follow a pattern of two high and two low tides every 24 hours. This pattern is caused for the most part by the gravitational attraction between the Earth and the moon.

     Plants and animals undergo life cycles. For example, frogs begin as eggs in water. The eggs grow into tadpoles, the tadpoles eventually become frogs, and the adult frogs lay eggs to start the life cycle over again. In the plant life cycle, a seed grows into a new plant that forms seeds. Then the new seeds repeat the life cycle.
AND BE ABLE TO:
     
explain how some events in nature occur in a pattern or cycle, such as the seasons, day and night, phases of the moon, tides, and life cycles.
     
recognize that the relationships that exist between and among the Earth, sun, and moon result in day and night, seasonal changes, phases of the moon, and the tides.
     
model and describe how the Earthís rotation causes day and night.
     
model and describe how the sunís rays strike the Earth to cause seasons.
     
observe, chart, and illustrate phases of the moon, and describe the changing pattern of the moon as it revolves around the Earth.
     
analyze data from simple tide tables to determine a pattern of high and low tides.

explain the pattern of growth and change that organisms, such as the butterfly and frog, undergo during their life cycle.


 

Standard 3.9    The student will investigate and understand the water cycle and its relationship to life on Earth. Key concepts include:
a)
   the energy from the sun drives the water cycle;
b)
      processes involved in the water cycle (evaporation, condensation, precipitation);
c)
      water is essential for living things; and
d)
      water supply and water conservation

3RD GRADERS SHOULD KNOW:
     
The water cycle is the movement of water from the ground to the air and back to the ground by evaporation, condensation, and precipitation. The energy that drives this cycle comes from the sun.
     
During the water cycle, liquid water is heated and changed to a gas (evaporation). The gas is cooled and changed back to a liquid (condensation). A liquid or a solid falls to the ground as precipitation.
     
Our water supply on Earth is limited. Pollution reduces the amount of usable water; therefore, the supply should be conserved carefully.
     
Water is a simple compound essential for life on Earth. Living cells are mostly water. In each cell, the chemicals necessary for life are dissolved in water.
AND BE ABLE TO:
     
identify the sun as the origin of energy that drives the water cycle.
     
describe the processes of evaporation, condensation, and precipitation as they relate to the water cycle.
     
construct and interpret a model of the water cycle.
     
identify major water sources for a community, including rivers, reservoirs, and wells. Describe the major water sources for the local community.
     
explain methods of water conservation in the home and school.
     
analyze possible sources of water pollution in their neighborhoods, at school, and in the local community. This includes runoff from over-fertilized lawns and fields, oil from parking lots, eroding soil, and animal waste.
     
appraise the importance of water to people and to other living things.

      realize living things get water from the environment in different ways.